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day06


Crew 97 Log Book for January 6, 2011

Photos of the day





Commander's Check-In Report

Judah Epstein Reporting

Crew Physical Status: Good.

Time Departed/Returned from EVA:
EVA #5: 10:04 / 10:39. Judah, Jim, Nathan.
EVA #6: 14:32 / 16:09. Nathan, Jim, Amanda, Judah.

Brief Narrative of Field Mission Results:
Crew successfully collected sand sized regolith samples for Judah's Water Filtration experiment and performed reconnaissance for the Water Gully and Rock Varnish experiments.

EVA Data/Interpretations:

EVA #5: Judah, Jim, Nathan. Crew successfully collected sand sized regolith samples for Judah's Slow Sand Water Filtration Experiment based on traveling to a previously determined location from a previous recon EVA.

EVA #6: Nathan, Jim, Amanda, Judah. Crew performed reconnaissance on ATV for Amanda's Water Gully Experiment and Nathan's Rock Varnish Study.

Engineering/Hab Maintenance:
DG visited and made a new hose system for the outside potable water tank to the inside potable water tank. The system is now functioning with the pump from outside to inside potable water tanks.

Report Transmission Schedule:
CMDR Check-in, ENGR, CMDR Report, Photos, 2 EVA Reports, Science Report

Plans for Tomorrow:

- 07:30 - Breakfast (Tonya/Judah)
- 8:00 - Crew exercise
- Engineering checks
- EVA #7: Satellite comparison
- 11:30 - Lunch
- Engineering - work on hot water heater
- EVA #8: Water Gullies
- Preparation of crew experiments
- Engineering checks
- 17:30 - Dinner
- Reports by 20:00
- Food Study Questionnaire
- Showers: Nathan/Judah

Inventory:
DG brought a new trailer tank of potable water.

Support Requested:
n/a

Miscellaneous:
Tonight is Nathan's Martian Birthday Party!


Commander's Report

Judah Epstein Reporting

Today was another productive day on Mars! After breakfast and morning exercise; Judah, Jim, and Nathan began EVA #5. The crew collected sand sized regolith for use in Judah's sedimentary filter experiment. The location had already been determined on yesterday's reconnaissance EVA. The afternoon EVA was a reconnaissance EVA for Nathan's Rock Varnish Study and Amanda's Water Gully study. The purpose was to determine locations for potential rock sampling. This was the crew's first EVA on ATV, in order to explore a larger geographic area. Nathan, Amanda, Jim, and Judah departed for the mission. Unfortunately, ATV troubles were encountered and Judah returned to the HAB. But Nathan, Amanda, and Jim were successful in scouting for potential sampling locations.

The Crew Engineer, Commander, and DG also spent a significant amount of the day working on creating a new system of piping from the outside potable water tank to the inside potable water tank. A new pipe was installed and therefore the HAB now has a functioning system to refill the inside potable water tank. The old system was designed whereas water was always in the bottom section of the pipe; whereas it was vulnerable to freezing. The new system completely drains the pipe back to the main tank, thus nearly removing the potential for freezing of water lines.

The psycho-physiological experiment has received human research approval and thus Tonya has been working diligently on preparations of her experiment. She will begin taking baseline readings tonight; and tomorrow will begin more extensive analysis.

The water filtration experiment is achieving additional results. As the schmutzdecke biological layer may still be forming on the slow sand filters, all 3 filters reported positive levels of bacteria of the effluent water from the influent sedimentary filtered greywater. The MDRS Wetland Filtration System reported negative levels of bacteria, but the water was tested from the tank that receives bleach each day. Future days of MDRS Wetland Filtration testing will be from the water tank before the tank that receives bleach.

Today is Crew Engineer Nathan's Birthday. Therefore tonight the crew will be celebrating Nathan's Martian Birthday Party with fun games and home-made cupcakes. Tomorrow will consist of additional in-HAB experiments, beginning the psycho-physiological study, an EVA for Satellite data comparison, and an afternoon EVA for Amanda's Water Gully experiment.

Science Report

Judah Epstein Reporting

The purpose of this project is to explore the effectiveness of a slow sand sedimentary water filtration system in a planetary environment. To simulate a planetary environment the experiment will be conducted at the Mars Desert Research Station, a self-sustaining planetary research experiment and simulation expedition.

The filter development will be comprised of washed Martian regolith simulants (JSC Mars-1A) which are chemically similar to the Mars surface sample analyzed at the Viking lander 1 site. Two additional filters will be created; one with the filter media comprised of commercially purchased sand, and the third filter comprised of locally found sand regolith at the Mars Desert Research Station obtained during an EVA while in Martian Simulation.

The slow sand water filtration system will be compared to the currently existing system. Current space missions utilize advanced technology such as reverse osmosis and nanotechnology. Water filtration at the Mars Desert Research Station is conducted utilizing a wetland-type system in an enclosed Greenhab where aerobic bacteria break down contaminants and a series of five different tanks with wetland-type plants remove nitrogen and other contaminants in a denitrification process.

Influent is greywater to the system which is then filtered and reused as input water to the toilet system. Further improvements of this process could lead to the output of the filtration system to be suitable for potable use.

Through the sedimentary filtration project, the output water from the slow sand filter will be analyzed and tested for its productive use as compared to the water effluent from the current wetland system. Proper scientific analysis will determine if the:

• Slow sand filtration system is not a suitable replacement or backup for the wetland system

• Slow sand filtration is a suitable replacement or backup for the wetland system and can potentially be utilized in the place of the wetland system

• Slow sand filtration is an optimal solution as compared to the wetland system and should likely be utilized in the place of the wetland system

• Slow sand filtration produces potable water and is a definite improvement and should thus be considered as a primary water filtration source as compared with other advanced technological systems such as reverse osmosis and nanotechnology

The major benefit of exploring feasibility of a slow sand filtration system is that this system is an age-old proven technology for over 150 years. In the case of space exploration to other planets such as Mars, success of new technology is mandatory; especially in the case of life-sustaining systems such as water. On a long term space expedition, failure of an advanced water purification system would likely lead to death of the astronauts and thus the end of the scientific mission. Advanced water purification technologies are a great development to bring to new worlds, but plans must be enabled in case of failures. Long-term expeditions in remote and planetary environments need to be able to adapt and utilize basic and proven alternative methods with locally available resources. The advantage of a slow sand filtration system is that the entire system could be developed in a planetary environment utilizing locally found materials on the planetary environment without necessity for electrical or power input. By studying the feasibility of the system beforehand in a simulated planetary environment, future planetary expeditions could have knowledge of developing such a system in an emergency scenario and know what to expect in terms of creation and its longevity as a potable water solution or extending the availability of the currently source-able potable water.

As a best case scenario of the efficiency as a potable water solution, the slow sand filtration system could not simply be analyzed as a backup in case of emergency, but could be utilized as the main source of water filtration; whereas successful exploration expeditions are often conducted utilizing minimal equipment but instead making use of local resources. In addition to local resources to create the filtration system, the system could also be analyzed as a method to develop potable water from locally found planetary water resources.

Slow sand filters are made up of a bed of sand which is initially about 1 meter in depth, with about 1 meter of supernatant water. Slow sand filters are excellent at removal of microorganisms. This is primarily accomplished through the top layer of the biological activity in the schmutzdecke. This is the slimy surface layer of biological activity, consisting of bacteria, algae, various single and multiple cell organisms, and bits of amorphous organic particulate matter such as fragments of rotting leaves. The schmutzdecke is naturally formed over time through usage of the filter system. In the biological activity of this layer, larger organisms prey upon the small biological particles; as a water filtration mechanism and is responsible for pathogen inactivation and the removal of organics from the influent water.

______________________________

The following water sources are measured in the project:

Slow Sand Filter 1: Martian Regolith Simulant

Slow Sand Filter 2: Commercial Sand

Slow Sand Filter 3: Local MDRS Utah Sands

Filter 4: MDRS HAB Wetland filtration

Test 5: Analysis of Greywater properties (before filtration)

Test 6: Analysis of MDRS HAB Potable Water Source

The following tools are used to take water measurements:

- Timer (measuring time of to filter to determine Hydraulic Conductivity)

- TDS probe (measure Total Dissolved Solids)

- pH meter (measure pH and Temperature)

- Qanta Probe (measure Temperature, Specific Conductivity, Dissolved Oxygen, pH, Total Dissolved Solids, Dissolved Oxygen percentage, and Oxidation Reduction Potential) - (DO levels may be incorrect because of bubble in sensor. pH levels may be incorrect due to calibration)

- Turbidity Tool (measure Turbidity)

- Hach Test Strips (measure Hardness, Total Chlorine, Total Bromine, Free Chlorine, Alkalinity, and Cyanuric Acid) - not measured everyday

- Jungle Aquarium Test Kit (measure pH, Nitrate, Nitrite, Hardness, and Alkalinity) - not measured everyday

- WaterSafe Bacteria Test Kit (measure if bacteria is present) - not measured everyday

___________________________________

The following data was collected yesterday (January 5):

Slow Sand Filter 1: Martian Regolith Simulant

K 0.000140129
t 16860
TDS 58
pH 7.8
Temp no data
Temp 15.83
SpC 0.000
DO 22
pH 9.67
TDS 0.0
DO % 172
ORP -14
Turbidity 4.47
Hardness 500
Total Chlorine 0
Total Bromine 0
Free Chlorine 0.5
Alkalinity 240
Cyanuric Acid 0
pH 8.4
Nitrate 0
Nitrite 0.5
Hardness 300
Alkalinity 300
Bacteria - positive

Slow Sand Filter 2: Commercial Sand

K - no data
t - clogged, no data
TDS 124
pH 7.9
Temp no data
Temp 10.53
SpC 0.000
DO 20.7
pH 10.25
TDS 0.0
DO % 132
ORP -12
Turbidity 36.7
Hardness 500
Total Chlorine 0
Total Bromine 0
Free Chlorine 0.5
Alkalinity 240
Cyanuric Acid 0
pH 8.4
Nitrate 0
Nitrite 0.5
Hardness 300
Alkalinity 300
Bacteria positive

Slow Sand Filter 3: Local MDRS Utah Sands

K 0.000126611
t 18660
TDS 65
pH 8.3
Temp no data
Temp 12.67
SpC 1.17
DO 8.5
pH 10.37
TDS 0.8
DO % 76
ORP -22
Turbidity 378
Hardness 100
Total Chlorine 0
Total Bromine 0
Free Chlorine 0.5
Alkalinity 240
Cyanuric Acid 0
pH 7.8
Nitrate 0
Nitrite 0.5
Hardness 150
Alkalinity 300
Bacteria positive

Filter 4: MDRS HAB Wetland filtration

TDS 78
pH 8.3
Temp no data
Temp 10.5
SpC 1.74
DO 8.9
pH 10.28
TDS 1.1
DO % 80
ORP 292
Turbidity 5.47
Hardness 0
Total Chlorine 3
Total Bromine 5
Free Chlorine 10
Alkalinity 180
Cyanuric Acid 300
pH 8.4
Nitrate 0
Nitrite 0.5
Hardness 150
Alkalinity 180

Bacteria negative (but from water tank which receives bleach each day. in future will be tested from tank before bleach)

Test 5: Analysis of Greywater properties (before filtration)

TDS 72
pH 7.6
Temp no data
Temp 14.8
SpC 0.9
DO 11
pH 10.17
TDS 0.7
DO % 52
ORP 114
Turbidity 325
Hardness 0
Total Chlorine 0
Total Bromine 0
Free Chlorine 0.5
Alkalinity 240
Cyanuric Acid 0
pH 7.2
Nitrate 0
Nitrite 0.5
Hardness 75
Alkalinity 300
Bacteria positive

Test 6: Analysis of MDRS HAB Potable Water Source

TDS 30
pH 8.4
Temp no data
Temp 10.3
SpC 0.539
DO 8.9
pH 10.48
TDS 0.3
DO % 77
ORP 167
Turbidity 1.66
Hardness 0
Total Chlorine 0
Total Bromine 0
Free Chlorine 0.5
Alkalinity 240
Cyanuric Acid 0
pH 7.2
Nitrate 0
Nitrite 0.5
Hardness 25
Alkalinity 120

____________________________________________

K (Hydraulic Conductivity) is calculated as a Falling Head Permeameter with equation: K = (dt*dt*L / dc*dc*t)*ln(ho/h) cm/s

L = 74 cm. ho = 25 cm. h = 15 cm. dt = 1.27 cm. dc = 5.08 cm.

_____________________________________

Units are below:

K - cm/s
t- seconds
Temp - C
Spc - ms/com
DO - mg/L
TDS - g/L
ORP - mV
Turbidity - NTU
Hardness, Total Chlorine, Free Chlorine, Alkalinity, Cyanuric Acid - ppm
Nitrate - ppm. mg/L
Nitrite - ppm. mg/L

_____________________________________

Data collected yesterday is compared with all previously collected data:

21-Dec 22-Dec 23-Dec 24-Dec 25-Dec 26-Dec 27-Dec 28-Dec 29-Dec 30-Dec 31-Dec 1-Jan 2-Jan 3-Jan 4-Jan 5-Jan

Mission Support note: Table values below have been commented out because they won't survive conversion into HTML. We will try to post the original spreadsheet files.


Engineering Report

Nathan Wong Reporting


Generator/Electricity:

Kitty(Diesel Generator) (Used? Yes/No): Yes

Honey (Gas Generator) (Used? Yes/No): Yes

Battery Charge Level:

Notes/Comments (include how many generator runs, approximately when, and any times you needed to turn the generator on/off): Everything worked normally today.


Fuel Status:

Diesel (Full/0.75/0.5/0.25/Empty): 0.75

Propane Tank (Full/0.75/0.5/0.25/Empty): 0.59

Gasoline Tank (Full/0.75/0.5/0.25/Empty): 4 Gas cans full

Notes/Comments:


Oil:

Kitty Oil Quantity (# of Quarts in storage): 3

Honey Oil Quantity (# of Quarts in storage): 2

ATV Oil Quantity (# of Quarts in storage): 2

Car Oil Quantity (# of Quarts in storage): none


Water Status:

Outside Potable Water Tank Level (inches from bottom): Empty

Trailer Potable Water Tank Level (inches from bottom): empty

Hab Potable Water Tank Level (inches from bottom): Full

Potable Water Meter Reading: 40568.3

In to GreenHab Meter Reading:

Notes/Comments: Pump to Hab tank is now working!


GreenHab:

Condition of plants in Tank 1: None

Condition of plants in Tank 2: 3 plants

Condition of plants in Tank 3: 7 plants

Greenhab Notes/Comments: Plants look good.


Observatory:

Telescope Used? (Yes/No): No

Observatory Notes/Comments: Observatory not used


Transportation:

Hab Car (NOT RENTAL)
Used (yes/no): No
Oil Checked (yes/no): No
Tire Status: good
Odometer at end of day: 123085
Notes/Comments on Hab Car:

ATV 1 (Opportunity):
Used: Yes
Oil Checked: No
Fuel Consumed: No
Tire Status: Inflated
Comments:

ATV 2 (Spirit):
Used: Yes
Oil Checked: No
Fuel Consumed: No
Tire Status: Inflated
Comments:

ATV 3 (Viking I):
Used: Yes
Oil Checked: No
Fuel Consumed: No
Tire Status: Inflated
Comments:

ATV 4 (Viking II):
Used: Yes
Oil Checked: No
Fuel Consumed: Yes
Tire Status: Inflated
Comments:

All 4 ATV's were working in the morning. For the afternoon EVA 2 of the ATV's were not working. I will continue to look at this in the morning.


Heating and Ventilation:
Thermostat setting upstairs (Farenheit): off
Actual temperature upstairs (Farenheit): 71

Thermostat setting downstairs (Farenheit): 55
Actual temperature downstairs (Farenheit): 57


Computers/Networking Infrastructure:

Notes/comments on internet/computers?: Everything is working well

General Engineering Notes/Comments:

A new water line was installed today to take water from the outside hab tank to the inside hab tank. It works well. Hot water heater is not operational.

EVA 5 Report

Jim Crowell Reporting


Time: 10:04 / 10:39

Crew Members: Judah Epstein, Nathan Wong, Jim Crowell

Site Location: East of Hab, towards Phobos Peak.

Transit Mode: Walking

Objectives: To return to sites 011 and 012 for Judah's collection.

Results: Sand grains at 011 were too big to be of any use. Sand at 012 was collected.

Lessons Learned: Even if something is thought to be useful by one crew member, it may not be when analyzed in greater detail.

EVA 6 Report

Jim Crowell Reporting


Time: 14:32 / 16:09

Crew Members: Nathan Wong, Judah Epstein, Amanda Damptz, Jim Crowell

Site Location: North of Hab, along the main road

Transit Mode: ATVs

Objectives: Recon for Nathan's experiment

Results: Four ATVs were taken, one broke shortly after leaving the Hab, so Judah returned to the Hab with the broken one. Nathan, Amanda, and Jim continued on with the EVA. Nathan's radio malfunctioned. A good location was found for Nathan's collection on a separate EVA. Also, a good location for collection for Jim's experiment was also found. Failure of Amanda's respiratory tubes required return to the Hab.

Lessons Learned: Double check ATVs, radios, and suits before the EVA begins to ensure they are all operational and functioning properly.


Cook's Report

Lucinda Land and Jim Crowell Reporting


1) Was today
- a cooking day? Yes
- a non-cooking day? Yes
- a day of celebration involving special foods? Yes – birthday. Special food: peanut butter cupcakes with chocolate frosting.
(Note: cooking and non-cooking both checked due to a misunderstanding)

2) List the foods served at today's main meal (usually the evening meal), giving full names of each.
Alpine Aire Pasta Alfredo with Shrimp (entrée)
Minestrone soup
Peanut butter cupcakes with chocolate frosting

3) List any main meal foods not finished by the crew (leftovers stored for later use or discarded if inedible)
All main dinner food was finished. We had some leftover cupcakes

4) Recipes for anything more complicated than following package directions exactly, or rehydrating.
Peanut butter cupcakes –adapted from http://allrecipes.com/Recipe/Peanut-Butter-Cupcakes/Detail.aspx, recipe halved.
Ingredients
1 cup brown sugar
1/4 cup shortening
1/2 cup peanut butter
1 egg equivalent of reconstituted dried whole egg.
3/4 cup milk
1/2 teaspoon syrup (replaces vanilla extract in original recipe0
1-1/4 cups all-purpose flour
1-1/2 teaspoon of baking powder (replaces soda and cream of tartar in original recipe)
1/2 pinch salt
Preheat oven to 350°, grease muffin pan.
Cream together sugar, shortening, peanut butter until light. Rehydrate dried egg and add along with pancake syrup (substitutes for missing vanilla extract) Combine dry ingredients, stir into batter alternately with (reconstituted instant) milk. Spoon into muffin pan, bake 15-20 minutes or until top of cupcake springs back when pressed lightly. Cool in pan 10 minutes, move to rack to finish cooling.

Chocolate frosting:
Ingredients
1-2 T shelf stable anhydrous butter
1 ounce cocoa powder
2 cups confectioners' sugar
1/4 cup reconstituted instant milk

Frost cupcakes after they have cooled.

5) Comments/questions : none